Tempered glass is made to be strong, durable and impact / scratch resistant through a process called “air quenching.” The glass is pre-cut and edged, placed into a tempering furnace, then cooled rapidly by a system of air jets. The quenching process makes the tempered glass about 4-5 times stronger than non-tempered glass of the same size and thickness.
If tempered glass does happen to break, it does not typically break into shards with sharp edges like regular glass. Rather, it will break into small, rounded pieces and is therefore used in environments where human safety is a priority. Tempered glass usually carries a smaller price tag than laminated glass.
Laminated Safety Glass
A good analogy for laminated glass would be that of a glass sandwich. Two (or more) layers of glass are joined together by a translucid plastic vinyl interlayer, which is commonly called PVB (polyvinyl butyral).
One of the benefits of laminated glass is that if it breaks, it sticks to the PVB layer rather than shattering into small pieces. Keeping this structural integrity not only helps to avoid a big mess, it is also a big safety benefit for the surrounding people and objects. The other important benefit is that the PVB layer can block up to 99% of the UV rays.
Low Iron Glass
"Low-iron" is an option available with both tempered and laminated glass. Reducing the iron content in the glass will give it an extra clear appearance without the dominant light greenish tint observed in regular glass.
Low-iron glass, also called extra-clear glass, provides excellent light transmittance in all thicknesses. It is more transparent and more neutral in colour. Low iron glass will provide better color rendition for the displayed objects and is highly recommended in brighter and lighter environments.
Anti-Reflective glass is coated on the outer surfaces with a thin coating that helps light pass through the glass and not get reflected away from it. Regular uncoated glass transmits about 91% of the light through it, with about 8% of the light reflecting back (the rest is absorbed). Coating the outer surfaces of the glass can reduce the amount of light reflected from 8% to 1 or 2%. This is a noticeable improvement in two ways. First, there is less glare or reflection off the glass, allowing you to look through the glass easier. Second, light actually goes through the glass, making everything look brighter.
Anti-Reflective coating is a premium option that is only offered on low-iron laminated safety glass.